Photos and Documents

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“This genetically ill person will cost our People’s Community 60 000 Reichsmarks over his lifetime. Comrade of the people, that’s also your money.” (1938)

People arrested during the November Pogrom 1938 being counted at roll call in Buchenwald concentration camp, Germany.

Nazi propaganda in Berlin, Germany, 1932.

Room at Fort VII in Posen (Poznań, occupied Poland), where the first gassings of patients took place in October 1939.

Document from Gestapo, the German security police, concerning the arrest of Juda Rosenberg and Elisabeth Makowiak.

Herschel Grynszpan at his arrest in November 1938 in Paris, France.

Minnesstenar i Gelsenkirschen, så kallade Stolpersteine (”snubbelstenar”), som placeras ut för att hedra personer som fördrevs eller mördades under Förintelsen. Stenarna placeras ligger i trottoaren utanför de hus där personerna bodde.

Logo of the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921.

Pirna-Sonnenstein Euthanasia Centre

European Rail System and Camps 1939.

An announcement in Polish and German restricting the area of residence of Roma ("Gypsies") in the Warsaw district. From June 1, 1942 Roma ("Gypsies") are allowed to live only in the Jewish ghettos.

Dr. Robert Ritter and his associate Eva Justin taking a blood sample as part of their racial research on Sinti and Roma. Landau, Germany, 1938.

Camp photos of Orli Wald in Auschwitz

Female survivors in the "Gypsy barracks" at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp after liberation.

Alsatian Romani women and children in the Rivesaltes detention camp.

The Germans took advantage of the walled city of Theresienstadt and created a ghetto for the Jews. In the autumn of 1942 the entire city was turned into a concentration camp under SS control. The map shows an overview of the fortress.

Announcement of the “Law for the Prevention of Offspring with Hereditary Diseases”

Juda Rosenberg and Elisabeth Makowiak with denigrating signs around their necks

Jewish population in Europe before the war (circa 1933).

A group of Romani prisoners, awaiting instructions from their German captors, sit in an open area near the fence in the Belzec concentration camp. (1940)

Children playing in a Jewish neighbourhood in Paris, France, 1931.

An example of the harsh anti-“Gypsy” laws found throughout Europe in the 1600s and 1700s: an edict stating that all adult “Gypsies” in the country be put to death by hanging, and their children sent to orphanages, Prussia, 1725.

Postcard from 1933, of Adolf Hitler and Paul von Hindenburg.

June 1942, Corner of Żelazna 70 and Chłodna 23 (looking east). This section of Żelazna street connected the "large ghetto" and "small ghetto" areas of German-occupied Warsaw.

Wedding of perpetrators in Hartheim, September 1940. From left to right: Christian Wirth (head of the office at the Hartheim euthanasia centre, later one of the leading architects of the mass murder of Jews in occupied Poland), Franz Reichleitner (Wirth’s deputy in Hartheim, later commandant of the Sobibor extermination camp in occupied Poland), Elisabeth Vallaster (the bride, a “nurse” at Hartheim), Josef Vallaster (the groom, crematory worker at Hartheim), Gertrude Blanke (chief of the nursing staff at Hartheim).

"Kristallnacht": nationwide pogrom.

Sinti and Roma in the Lackenbach camp in Austria. In 1941 some of the interns were deported to the ghetto in Lodz.

Photo from 1923, of a German man using banknotes as wallpaper.

The building where the Wannsee conference took place outside Berlin, Germany.

Nazi poster from 1932 depicting unemployed Germans. Title: “Our last hope: Hitler.”

This photograph documents the humiliation of a religious Jew in Tomaszów Mazowiecki, which occurred in the autumn of 1939 in occupied Poland.

A group of partisans from various fighting units who guarded the airfield in the Naliboki Forest, among them partisans from the Bielski brothers’ group, who was active in the years 1942–1944 in the forest near the village of Naliboki, in Belarus (formerly Poland). 20 July 1944.

A local collaborationist policeman in German-occupied Serbia escorts a group of Roma to their execution.

Graffiti on the wall of a building in Berlin showing the entrance to Auschwitz and Walter Degan with a pink triangle and the prison number 20285

The Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring in Nazi Germany ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses“) was passed into act on 14 July 1933.

Propaganda poster for the Nazi magazine “Neues Volk” (1938) showing the idealised concept of a healthy German family as the core of the “Volksgemeinschaft”.

Street in Hannover named after Orli Wald.

Jewish population in Europe before the war (circa 1933).

Hartheim Castle with smoke coming out of the crematorium’s chimney (1941).

Erzsebet Fajo.

Poster showing the various badges marking the prisoners in the concentration camps.

Memorial to the Sinti and Roma victims of National Socialism, Berlin.

Nazi election poster from 1932. Text: “We are rebuilding! Our building blocks: work, freedom, bread. The others’ building blocks: social cutbacks, corruption, terror, hatred, lies.”

Antisemitic inscription at the entrance of the library in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. "Juden Zutritt verboten!" ("Jews are not allowed to enter!") (The photo was taken in January 1935.)

Members of the Jungmädelbund attaching an advertisement poster for the Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM) on a wall with the inscription “Girl come, you’re one of us”. To control all youth, Nazi Germany wanted all boys and girls to join their youth movements, in which they were taught the basics of the Nazi worldview.

Anna Maria (Settela) Steinbach, a ten-year-old Dutch Romani girl deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau in 1944, where she was murdered.

Delegates of the Evian Conference.

List of Jewish populations by country used at the Wannsee Conference in 1942

"T4“ doctors make a trip to the lake of Starnberg on the occasion of a selection in the Dachau concentration camp, 3 September 1941 (2nd from right.: Dr. Hermann Paul Nitsche, head of the medical office of “Aktion T4”).

Jewish traders remove traces of the pogrom at Potsdamer Strasse, 10 November 1938.

Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl and Cristoph Probst who were all members of The White Rose organisation.

Johannes Bell of Germany is portrayed signing the peace treaties on 28 June 1919 in The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors by Sir William Orpen.

Two Jewish men playing chess in Lodz, Poland, 1936.

A prisoner distributes food to Jews that just arrived to Theresienstadt from the Netherlands.

A Jewish lawyer, Dr Michael Siegel, humiliated publicly in the streets of Munich, Germany, because he put his trust in the justice system. The Nazis have shaved his head and forced him to go barefoot. The sign reads: “I’ll never again complain to the police”.

A photographer with a group of nomadic Roma. This photograph was probably taken in Czechoslovakia, 1939.

Students and members of the SA unload books deemed "un-German" during the book burning in Berlin. The banner reads: "German students march against the un-German spirit." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.

Members of a soccer team in Bitola pose in the goal of a sports field. 14 August 1928.

Jews in the ghetto of Lodz in occupied Poland.

Members of the family camp protected by the partisan detachment of Tuvia Bielski, who were hiding in the woods near the village of Naliboki, in Belarus (formerly Poland), until 1944. (Commander Yehuda Bielski, sitting second row right.)

August Dickmann before the war

Minnesstenar i Gelsenkirschen, så kallade Stolpersteine (”snubbelstenar”), som placeras ut för att hedra personer som fördrevs eller mördades under Förintelsen. Stenarna placeras ligger i trottoaren utanför de hus där personerna bodde.

The German delegation at the peace conference in Versailles, France, 1919.

Eva Justin measures the head of a Romani woman. An associate, Sophie Erhardt, is on the right. Landau, Germany, 1938.