Photos and Documents

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A group of Romani prisoners, awaiting instructions from their German captors, sit in an open area near the fence in the Belzec concentration camp. (1940)

Jewish traders remove traces of the pogrom at Potsdamer Strasse, 10 November 1938.

Room at Fort VII in Posen (Poznań, occupied Poland), where the first gassings of patients took place in October 1939.

Delegates of the Evian Conference.

The Germans took advantage of the walled city of Theresienstadt and created a ghetto for the Jews. In the autumn of 1942 the entire city was turned into a concentration camp under SS control. The map shows an overview of the fortress.

Female survivors in the "Gypsy barracks" at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp after liberation.

Erzsebet Fajo.

Nazi poster from 1932 depicting unemployed Germans. Title: “Our last hope: Hitler.”

Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl and Cristoph Probst who were all members of The White Rose organisation.

Johannes Bell of Germany is portrayed signing the peace treaties on 28 June 1919 in The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors by Sir William Orpen.

Jews in the ghetto of Lodz in occupied Poland.

The building where the Wannsee conference took place outside Berlin, Germany.

Members of the Jungmädelbund attaching an advertisement poster for the Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM) on a wall with the inscription “Girl come, you’re one of us”. To control all youth, Nazi Germany wanted all boys and girls to join their youth movements, in which they were taught the basics of the Nazi worldview.

A prisoner distributes food to Jews that just arrived to Theresienstadt from the Netherlands.

Two Jewish men playing chess in Lodz, Poland, 1936.

Memorial to the Sinti and Roma victims of National Socialism, Berlin.

Logo of the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921.

Antisemitic inscription at the entrance of the library in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. "Juden Zutritt verboten!" ("Jews are not allowed to enter!") (The photo was taken in January 1935.)

“This genetically ill person will cost our People’s Community 60 000 Reichsmarks over his lifetime. Comrade of the people, that’s also your money.” (1938)

Postcard from 1933, of Adolf Hitler and Paul von Hindenburg.

Nazi election poster from 1932. Text: “We are rebuilding! Our building blocks: work, freedom, bread. The others’ building blocks: social cutbacks, corruption, terror, hatred, lies.”

Herschel Grynszpan at his arrest in November 1938 in Paris, France.

A photographer with a group of nomadic Roma. This photograph was probably taken in Czechoslovakia, 1939.

European Rail System and Camps 1939.

The German delegation at the peace conference in Versailles, France, 1919.

Dr. Robert Ritter and his associate Eva Justin taking a blood sample as part of their racial research on Sinti and Roma. Landau, Germany, 1938.

People arrested during the November Pogrom 1938 being counted at roll call in Buchenwald concentration camp, Germany.

A Jewish lawyer, Dr Michael Siegel, humiliated publicly in the streets of Munich, Germany, because he put his trust in the justice system. The Nazis have shaved his head and forced him to go barefoot. The sign reads: “I’ll never again complain to the police”.

This photograph documents the humiliation of a religious Jew in Tomaszów Mazowiecki, which occurred in the autumn of 1939 in occupied Poland.

An announcement in Polish and German restricting the area of residence of Roma ("Gypsies") in the Warsaw district. From June 1, 1942 Roma ("Gypsies") are allowed to live only in the Jewish ghettos.

"T4“ doctors make a trip to the lake of Starnberg on the occasion of a selection in the Dachau concentration camp, 3 September 1941 (2nd from right.: Dr. Hermann Paul Nitsche, head of the medical office of “Aktion T4”).

An example of the harsh anti-“Gypsy” laws found throughout Europe in the 1600s and 1700s: an edict stating that all adult “Gypsies” in the country be put to death by hanging, and their children sent to orphanages, Prussia, 1725.

Sinti and Roma in the Lackenbach camp in Austria. In 1941 some of the interns were deported to the ghetto in Lodz.

Anna Maria (Settela) Steinbach, a ten-year-old Dutch Romani girl deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau in 1944, where she was murdered.

Members of a soccer team in Bitola pose in the goal of a sports field. 14 August 1928.

Eva Justin measures the head of a Romani woman. An associate, Sophie Erhardt, is on the right. Landau, Germany, 1938.

June 1942, Corner of Żelazna 70 and Chłodna 23 (looking east). This section of Żelazna street connected the "large ghetto" and "small ghetto" areas of German-occupied Warsaw.

Propaganda poster for the Nazi magazine “Neues Volk” (1938) showing the idealised concept of a healthy German family as the core of the “Volksgemeinschaft”.

Members of the family camp protected by the partisan detachment of Tuvia Bielski, who were hiding in the woods near the village of Naliboki, in Belarus (formerly Poland), until 1944. (Commander Yehuda Bielski, sitting second row right.)

Photo from 1923, of a German man using banknotes as wallpaper.

"Kristallnacht": nationwide pogrom.

Wedding of perpetrators in Hartheim, September 1940. From left to right: Christian Wirth (head of the office at the Hartheim euthanasia centre, later one of the leading architects of the mass murder of Jews in occupied Poland), Franz Reichleitner (Wirth’s deputy in Hartheim, later commandant of the Sobibor extermination camp in occupied Poland), Elisabeth Vallaster (the bride, a “nurse” at Hartheim), Josef Vallaster (the groom, crematory worker at Hartheim), Gertrude Blanke (chief of the nursing staff at Hartheim).

Hartheim Castle with smoke coming out of the crematorium’s chimney (1941).

The Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring in Nazi Germany ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses“) was passed into act on 14 July 1933.

Jewish population in Europe before the war (circa 1933).

Students and members of the SA unload books deemed "un-German" during the book burning in Berlin. The banner reads: "German students march against the un-German spirit." Berlin, Germany, May 10, 1933.

List of Jewish populations by country used at the Wannsee Conference in 1942

Children playing in a Jewish neighbourhood in Paris, France, 1931.

Alsatian Romani women and children in the Rivesaltes detention camp.

A local collaborationist policeman in German-occupied Serbia escorts a group of Roma to their execution.

Jewish population in Europe before the war (circa 1933).

A group of partisans from various fighting units who guarded the airfield in the Naliboki Forest, among them partisans from the Bielski brothers’ group, who was active in the years 1942–1944 in the forest near the village of Naliboki, in Belarus (formerly Poland). 20 July 1944.

Nazi propaganda in Berlin, Germany, 1932.